“Rwanda now leads the world in female representation in parliament, due in part to a quota system that reserves seats for women. Gender rights are enshrined in the national constitution and laws were changed to give women the right to inherit land and obtain credit.“
Hypatia of Alexandria lived in th 4th century A.D., in hard times for a female philosopher and scientist. According to Wikipedia, she is “the first female mathematician whose life is reasonably well recorded.” The astronomer and university teacher Hypatia tried to conserve the (ancient-classical) knowledge that was endangered by religious turmoil in the wake of the fall of the Roman empire.
Rachel Weisz plays a wonderful Hypatia in Amenábar’s movie “Agora“. In its end, she’s killed by religious fanatists (in this case Christian ones), who tear her skin off, mostly because she failed to comply with the religion’s rules and the position in society she was supposed to take.
Hedy Lamarr (Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler). The famous Austrian-American actress invented frequency hopping and was a well-known Hollywood actor, including the first ever portrayed female orgasm in a movie. 2014 she became a member of the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
One more from the core female developers of ENIAC. As other women, she mostly went unhonored – because female contributions didn’t match societies’ expectations:
Photos of these women working on the computer often went without credit in newspapers at the time, and when the ENIAC was completed and unveiled to the public on February 15, 1946, the US Army failed to mention the names of the female programmers who had programmed the machine to run such sophisticated calculations. This further contributed to the perceived disconnect between women and computing.
Bartik was one of the leading developers of the ENIAC trajectory computer, and she was quite proud of its first public presentation in 1946:
“The day ENIAC was introduced to the world was one of the most exciting days of my life. The demonstration was fabulous. ENIAC calculated the trajectory faster than it took the bullet to travel. We handed out copies of the calculations as they were run. ENIAC was 1,000 times faster than any machine that existed prior to that time. With its flashing lights, it also was an impressive machine illustrating graphically how fast it was actually computing.”
Frances Allen became the first woman to win the Turing Award (2006). She worked 45 years at IBM, helped develop Watson and trained FORTRAN in the 60ies already.
Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace (born Byron; short: Ada Lovelace) is said to be the world’s first programmer. She was the first human to recognize that Charles Babbages’ Calculation engine could serve for more… and published the world’s first algorithm.
Margaret Hamilton standing next to the navigation software that she and her MIT team produced for the Apollo Project.
She had a large part in creating COBOL, the first compilers and Harvard’s Mark I: Rear Admiral Grace M. Hopper is a legend.